Skip to main content


Show more

Confederates Who Served the Lord Jesus Christ by Dr. Richard Lee Montgomery

Jefferson Finis Davis–Alexander Hamilton Stephens–Christopher Gustavus
Memminger–Robert Edward Lee–Thomas Jonathan Jackson–Frances Blake
Brockenbrough–James Pedigru Boyce–William Wallace Duncan–Charles Wesley
Andrews–Braxton Bragg–John Bell Hood–Richard Stoddard Ewell–Julia Laura Jackson Christian

At the start of the Lincoln’s war in 1861 the Southern Army as well as the Northern Army were short of men who had any desire to walk in the likeness of Christ. Fact is, most were spiritually void of His image. Ann Eliza Hill Snider gives us this account of the Confederate Army: “In the first months of the strife the call of the war-trumpet was heard above all other sounds. The young men rushed to the camps of instruction, and, freed from the restraints of home and the influence of pious relatives, thousands of them gave way to the seductive influences of sin.” 1 In another account she tells us, “Legions of devils infest a camp. Vice grows in it like plants in a hotbed, and yields abundant and bitter fruits.” 2

Chaplain Dr. John William Jones writes this account in his book Christ In the Camp or, Religion In Lee's Army: “A soldier writes as follows: ‘I belonged to a Virginia regiment, engaged in active service in the mountains, far away from friends and home. I was surrounded by wicked and thoughtless companions, who spent their time in gaming, drinking, and frivolous conversations.’” 3 The picture that is developed here is that the depravity of man was in full swing. 

William W. Bennett records this in his work, A Narrative of the Great Revival, “‘The prevalence of vice,—drunkenness and profanity in our camps—is attributable to the officers themselves. By far the larger number of the officers of our Southern army are both profane and hard drinkers, where they are not drunkards.’

Another says: ‘There is an appalling amount of drunkenness in our army. More among the officers than the men. This evil is now on the increase.’

A surgeon writing from the army says: ‘I was greatly astonished to find soldiers in Virginia whom I had known in Georgia as sober, discreet citizens—members of the different churches—some deacons, and official members—even preachers, in the daily and constant habit of drinking whiskey for their health.’An officer who had visited many portions of the army gave it as his opinion that with the exception of the reverse at Fort Donelson, we were defeated not by the Federals but by whiskey.

A distinguished General is said to have remarked [to Chaplain Sterling M. Cherry of the Thirty-Seventh Georgia Infantry] that ‘if the South is overthrown, the epitaph should be Died of Whiskey.’” 4

Indeed there was a great need for moral clarity in the Southern Army in 1861. The cesspool of sinful living does only one thing—it contaminates every area of life. It profoundly reveals the nature of the fall of man in the Garden of Eden—mankind was separated from the living God, who is man’s only hope for true spiritual life. A kind of life seeking to live in obedience and faithfulness that God’s light might shine and expose the darkness and reveal our need for a Savior. Dr. Jones gives this description when an individual has been changed by the Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ: “In fine, Jackson took Jesus as his Saviour, his Guide, his great Exemplar, ‘the Captain of his salvation,’ whom he followed with the unquestioning obedience of the true soldier. And having thus lived, it is not surprising that he died the glorious death which has been described. Nay, it was not death; the weary, worn, battle-scarred veteran only received an ‘honorable discharged.’ He had won the victory, he only went to wear the ‘crown of rejoicing;’” 5 Only Christ makes the difference in the way and the manner in which a person can live their life.

So, having described the moral depravity and sinful lifestyles of much of the Southern Army at the beginning of Lincoln’s, War something happened to a large number of soldiers and citizens, that by the end of the war many lives were changed by Christ. Some have called this the “Great Revival,” while others might call it the “Third Awakening.” 6

Two terms need to be better understood here—revival and awakening. To begin with this understanding is to know that the history of revivals is the history of the church. Also, an awakened church is always a converting agency, teaching us that a religious awakening is the description of a revival. This term applies to the work of converting the unregenerate or to the task of bringing new life to a dead and decaying church.

A basic working definition of a revival is: “A genuine revival is the fruit or effect of a supernatural Divine influence, which restores the joy of God's salvation to backsliding Christians, startles the dead in trespasses and sins, convinces them of their lost and perishing condition, and makes them willing in the day of God's power.” 7

It could be that there are those who would say that this topic is a mute point and not very important to the major historical facts. Perhaps Dr. John William Jones says it best concerning this spiritual awakening: “... any history of that army which omits an account of the wonderful influence of religion upon it—which fails to tell how the courage, discipline, and morale of the whole was influenced by the humble piety and evangelical zeal of many of its officers and men—would be incomplete and unsatisfactory. The Army of Northern Virginia has a religious history as distinct and as easily traced as its military exploits, and the material for volumes on this feature of its history is so abundant...” 8

It is here that I present just a select few Christian servants who supported the Confederate government and dislike the oppression the Northern government.

1. Before Lincoln’s War

Before and at the genesis of Lincoln’s War there were already those individuals who were living lives seeking to please their Lord Jesus Christ. These men and women sought to walked holy lives 9 that their Lord might be glorified/exalted.

At this point I will only give a select few categories of those who served the Lord Jesus Christ during Lincoln’s War, those who were Politicians, Officers, Enlisted men, Chaplains and Women.

Confederate President Jefferson Finis Davis

Testimony from Benjamin Harvey Hill (Confederate Congressman from Georgia): “I could detain you all night correcting false impressions which have been industriously made against this great and good man. I knew Jefferson Davis as I know few men. I have been near him in his public duties; I have seen him by his private fireside; I have witnessed his humble Christian devotions, and I challenge the judgment of history when I say no people were ever led through the fiery struggle for liberty by a nobler, truer patriot, while the carnage of war and the trials of public life never revealed a purer and more beautiful Christian character. Those who during the struggle prostituted public office for private gain or used positions to promote favorites, or forgot public duty to avenge private griefs, or were derelict or faithless in any form to our cause, are they who condemn or abuse Mr. Davis. And well they may, for of all such he was the contrast, the rebuke, and the enemy. Those who were willing to sacrifice self for the cause, who were willing to bear trials for its success, who were willing to reap sorrow and poverty that victory might be won, will ever cherish the name of Jefferson Davis, for to all such he was a glorious peer and a most worthy leader.” 10

Confederate Vice President Alexander Hamilton Stephens

Testimony from Thomas DeWitt Talmage (Presbyterian Pastor from Washington D. C., delivered funeral sermon from the Brooklyn Tabernacle, Brooklyn, N. Y.): “Yes, Alexander H. Stephens believed in God the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and in Jesus Christ, His only-begotten Son, with more brain than all the infidels now blatant and brailing and blaspheming around Washington. He was a believer in the Bible and Christianity, and all up and down the South are ministers of the gospel who went into college and theological seminary and into pulpit through Alexander H. Stephens's pocket. With no princely estate, I am told that for the last thirty years there has not been an hour in which he has not been supporting men on their way to medicine or the law or the pulpit. ...he honored God, and next he honored Christian womanhood, and wherever there was a burdened man who wanted help, or a wayward man who wanted opportunity to return, or a struggling man who wanted knowledge, there was one who might count on Mr. Stephens as an ally. Within ten days I have heard his colored servants in most unlimited terms speak his praise.” 11 

Confederate Secretary of Treasury Christopher Gustavus Memminger

Testimony from Henry Dickson Capers (Former Confederate Colonel, Lawyer and Author): “No one could have more fully appreciated the momentous character of the proceedings, which Mr. Memminger knew would make this session of the Legislature the most important of the many in which he had served as the faithful representative of an intelligent constituency. He was not recognizing a mere form, or was he simply respecting a custom among Christian people, when he offered the foregoing preamble and resolutions. As a sincere Christian believer—one who all through his life feared God, who accepted the Bible as His revealed will, and who trusted in His omniscient care and mercy, he desired His divine guidance under circumstances which manifestly threatened the peace of the country and the happiness of his people.” 12

Another testimony from Henry Dickson Capers: “The death of Mrs. Memminger could not but deeply affect one who had the manly nature of her husband. At the grave of his wife he was, as in all things and under all circumstances, a sincere Christian. The faith of his religion gave to him an assurance that the severed ties of his loves would again be united in an immortal state of existence, to which the grave was but a gateway, and with this assurance he moved on to meet the duties of life with the spirit and the manly courage that had always characterized his actions.” 13

Confederate Major General  Robert Edward Lee 

Testimony from Robert Alonzo Brock gives us this wonderful description: “No picture of Robert E. Lee could be complete that did not portray the religious side of his character. It was the basis upon which all else rested. It was the source of his strength, the law of his life, the guide for his every act, and the support upon which he leaned in every trial. Throughout the war almost every military dispatch or private letter written by him contained some allusion to his trust and confidence in God. As, for instance, after the second battle of Manassas, he concluded his dispatch to the Confederate President in these words: ‘Our gratitude to Almighty God for His mercies rises higher each day. To Him, and to the valor of our troops, a nation’s gratitude is due.’ In his letters to his children noble sentiments, such as these, occur again and again: ‘Occupy yourself in aiding those more helpless than yourself. . . . Study to be frank with the world. Frankness is the child of honesty and courage. . . . Never let your mother or me wear one gray hair for any lack of duty on your part. . . . Hold on to your purity and virtue. They will sustain you in every calamity. . . . Never neglect the means of making yourself useful in the world. . . . You and Custis must take care of your kind mother and sisters when your father is dead. To do that you must learn to be good. Be true, kind and generous, and pray earnestly to God to enable you to ‘Keep His Commandments, and to walk in the same all the days of your life.’ ... I hope you will always be distinguished for your avoidance of the universal bane, whisky, and of every immorality. Nor need you fear to be ruled out of the society that indulges in it, for you will acquire their esteem and respect, as all venerate, if they do not practice virtue.’” 14

Confederate Lieutenant General Thomas Jonathan Jackson 

Testimony from Robert Lewis Dabney: “It may be accepted as a significant dispensation of Providence, that Jackson, the best type of the Christian master in the South, should be made the hero of this war for Southern independence. The people of the Southern States will cheerfully consent that this holy man, with his strong convictions of the righteousness and beneficence of their form of society, may stand forth to the world as their exemplar. lie had no pretensions to a righteousness more righteous than that of prophets, apostles, and Jesus Christ. His understanding was too honest to profess belief in God's inspired Word, and yet hold that relation to be a sinful one, which Moses expressly allowed and legislated for; which the Bible saints sustained to their fellow-men; which the Redeemer left prominent and unrepealed amidst his churches, as well as in secular society; and which the apostles continued to sanction, by admitting those who held it, without any disclaimer, or pledge of reformation or repentance, to church membership and church office. His conscience was too sensitive to tolerate known sin, at any prompting of conscience or interest. It will be a difficult problem for those who revile us, if they remember how  gregarious vices are, and how surely even a sin of Ignorance pollutes the soul and grieves the Holy Spirit, to explain how this most decided of slaveholders came to be so eminent for sanctity, and so richly crowned with the noblest graces and joys which God ever conferred on man. Especially, let the happy condition which the benevolence of such masters confers on their servants, be contrasted with that degradation and ruin to which our
enemies intentionally consign them.” 15

Wife and Mother of Confederate Soldier Frances Blake Brockenbrough

Testimony from her own words: But I write to you chiefly, my boy, to impress on your heart the importance of enlisting under the banner of the Cross. The searcher of hearts knows that my greatest desire is, that you should be a sincere and consistent Christian. I have feebly endeavored by my instructions, prayers and example, to win you to the service of Christ. You may have thought it strange that 1 have conversed directly with you so little concerning your religious state and destiny. I desire to confess to you, and with shame before God, my deficiency in this respect. I have ever found a difficulty in speaking to my children on the subject of salvation, arising from I know not what else but timidity, that has caused me great sorrow, and especially since you have passed to the dangers of the tented field, and beyond the reach of my anxious, beseeching words. Forgive me this wrong, and accept this communication as the best atonement which under the circumstances, I can offer. I feel now, that if I could see you, I would, from the fullness of my fond and burdened heart, entreat you in such words as follow: You did not cease to be a moral agent when you became a soldier. Assuming new responsibilities to your country, you did not weaken your responsibilities to God. You should not only render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's but unto God the things that are God's. Many good and intelligent men have maintained that a profession of arms is incompatible with a life of piety. It must be conceded that the genius and spirit of Christianity are utterly opposed to war. Christ is the Prince of peace; at his birth the heavenly host sang ‘peace on earth;’ the Gospel is a message of peace, and its universal diffusion and influence will banish war from the earth. Isa. 11. 2-4. But a careful examination of the Scriptures must convince us, that there is nothing in the demands of a just and defensive warfare at variance with the spirit and duties of Christianity.” 16

Pastor, Professor, Confederate Chaplain Dr. James Pedigru Boyce

Testimony from Dr. John William Jones, a student at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary's first session (1859- 1860): “‘As a teacher. Dr. Boyce greatly impressed me. I found very irksome at first his system of requiring the student to give a minute analysis of the lesson in Dick's Theology, which was then his leading text-book; but I soon got used to it, and many a time since I have had occasion to thank God and to thank my old professor for the thorough drill he gave us in the doctrines of God's Word.’ Dr. Jones adds that in later years he once delivered a message to Dr. Boyce from one of his more recent graduates, who was laboring in a region where the so-called ‘New Theology,’ ‘advanced thought,’ ‘liberalism,’ and loose views generally were painfully common. The message was: ‘Tell Dr. Boyce, with my love, that since I have been here I have thanked him a thousand times for his faithful teaching and thorough drill in Systematic Theology. What I learned of him has proven a healthy tonic in a malarious atmosphere.” 17

Pastor, Confederate Chaplain, Professor William Wallace Duncan

Testimony from Oscar Penn Fitzgerald, James Atkins, Thomas Smith Garrison: “In making an analysis of Bishop Duncan's character and gifts, it is proper that we speak of him first as a preacher. In this highest function of the ministry he was strong, clear and convincing. He preached a Gospel whose truths he believed fully, whose power he felt in the depths of his soul. He preached the Gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ, and nothing else. He spoke as one having authority. Called to be a ‘fisher of men’ by Him who walks the waves of life's troubled waters and stills the tempest by the word of His power, Bishop Duncan had no doubt as to the validity of his credentials, nor of the fulfillment of the Master’s promise to be with him always. He was diligent and faithful in the pastoral office. Unwavering devotion to duty was in him a dominant trait. He met heavy responsibilities with firmness and courage. He was faithful also in that which was least. As a preacher, Bishop Duncan exhibited the qualities that inspired respect and commanded success. In his own private life Bishop Duncan was a devout student of the holy Scriptures, and regular and earnest in prayer. He was ready always to give a reason for the faith that was in him. The religion of burning zeal and good works that he preached was illustrated in his own consecrated, faithful, and fruitful life. He was a Bible Christian, walking day by day in the fear of the Lord and the comfort of the Holy Ghost.” 18

Confederate Army Private, Pastor Dr. Charles Wesley Andrews

Testimony from Cornelius Walker: “One impression he always left whether he conversed, or spoke, or preached that he was no trifler, but an earnest man. And it mattered not what was the subject of conversation, it was impossible to keep him at it without his every now and then making a remark that showed his thoughts were on things above. He was, indeed, in the best sense, a serious man. No one was ever more free from melancholy or cant. He was natural in what he did; and it was just as natural for him to talk about Christ and his salvation as it is natural for the sun to rise. ...He loved the truth of Christ's gospel. It was to him his daily meat and drink. To him to live was Christ. He loved Christ, he trusted in Christ, he had no other hope but Christ; Christ to him was all in all. He never could be moved from the simple gospel salvation for all men, through Christ's atonement, to be received by faith! Other matters were important; but this was the essential thing. This he preached, and this he talked about. He never was moved away from it. As he loved Christ, so he loved every disciple of Christ, no matter of what name, or what color, or what position.” 19

2. During Lincoln’s War

Confederate Brigadier General Braxton Bragg

Testimony from Stephen Elliott: “For many months nothing was done by the main army under Gen. Bragg, although detached commands were at work. It rested at Tullahoma and vicinity, and was soon stronger in numbers than when the battle of Murfreesboro was fought, owing to Gen. Bragg's vigorous measures to arrest deserters and reclaim absentees. The army was well clothed, healthy, and in fine spirits. During this interval of leisure, an interesting incident occurred in Gen. Bragg's life: the baptism of the commander in his camp. The ceremony was performed in an impressive manner by Bishop Elliot, who in view of a congregation of about 3,000 of the troops, took the General's hand in his own and said, ‘Braxton, if thou hast not already been baptized, I baptize thee,’ etc. A writer in one of the newspapers, referring to the scene, remarked: ‘Gen. Bragg has thus set an example to his army which will not be without its influence. On visiting Gen. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia, I was struck with the high moral character which prevailed among the officers and soldiers, as well as the deep religious feeling that pervaded, especially in the lamented Gen. Jackson's corps. It will be a source of congratulation should Gen. Bragg succeed in producing the same beneficial result. There is no occasion for men becoming reckless and demoralized on entering the army, but on the contrary, a different feeling should prevail.’” 20

Confederate Lieutenant General John Bell Hood

Testimony from Charles Todd Quintard: “On the 8th of May, 1864, while I was in Atlanta in charge of St. Luke's Church and in attendance upon the hospitals, the following telegram came to me from Major Henry Hampton: ‘Can't you come up to morrow? General Hood wishes to be baptized.’ It was impossible for me to go, but it was a great pleasure for me to learn afterwards that General Polk arrived with his staff that day and that night he baptized his brother General. It was the eve of an expected battle. It was a touching sight, we may be sure,—the one-legged veteran, leaning upon his crutches to receive the waters of baptism and the sign of the cross.” 21

Confederate Lieutenant General Richard Stoddard Ewell

Testimony from Dr. John William Jones: “I have it from a well-authenticated source that the conversion of Lieutenant-General Ewell, Jackson's able lieutenant, was on this wise: At a council of war, one night, Jackson had listened very attentively to the views of his subordinates, and asked until the next morning to present his own. As they came away, A. P. Hill laughingly said to Ewell, ‘Well! I suppose Jackson wants time to pray over it.’ Having occasion to return to his quarters again a short time after, Ewell found Jackson on his knees and heard his ejaculatory prayers for God's guidance in the perplexing movements then before him. The sturdy veteran Ewell was so deeply impressed by this incident and by Jackson's general religious character, that he said: ‘If that is religion, I must have it;’ and in making a profession of faith not long afterwards he attributed his conviction to the influence of Jackson's piety.” 22  

In a letter to Presbyterian minister and educator Dr. Moses Drury Hoge, General Ewell writes: “Charlottesville, November 27, 1863. – My Dear Sir: I have received your kind letter, accompanying a copy of the Bible. Please add to the value of the gift by joining in my prayers that I may be assisted in following the precepts of the Divine Word, and that I may be guided by its wisdom. I am about starting for the army, having been detained by an injury to my leg. Richard S. Ewell.” 23

3. After Lincoln’s War

Julia Laura Jackson Christian 
(Daughter of General Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson

Testimony from her mother Mary Anna Jackson: “Her note-book abounds in such passages as these. ‘God is Love; If you love me, keep my commandments.’ Try to keep them all, but especially remember the fourth, fifth and tenth, which are oftener broken than the others. Always try to give a reasonable answer for what you believe. ‘Judge not, that ye be not judged.’ ‘Love your enemies,’ and never speak evil of them. Always try to be polite to everybody, especially the aged; and if any one is rude to you, have respect enough for yourself not to return the rudeness. ‘Never neglect duty for pleasure,’ and then your heart will be at ease. Always try to remember the golden rule: ‘Do unto others as you would have them do unto you.’ She was naturally generous and unselfish—traits inherited from her father, and no one ever possessed a higher sense of justice, or greater scorn for all deceit and meanness, and her own nature was so pure and high-toned that she was not prone to suspicion, making it difficult for her to penetrate the veil of innocence and charity through which it was her wont to view humanity in general.” 24

“During her last year's residence in Richmond, she writes: ‘This morning I heard an eloquent sermon from Dr. Hoge, and I wished for you. The text was: The secret things belong unto the Lord our God, but those things which are revealed belong unto us and to our children forever. His explanation of God's with-holding from us that which is beyond the grasp of our minds, was truly convincing. Could we but be content, resting upon our Father's faithful promises, we would not ask for the veil of futurity to be drawn aside, knowing that God will lead us step by step through the shadows and past temptations, until the breaking of the morning light, and our star of faith is set in God's own firmament.” 25


This presentation is not suggesting or attempting to suggest that the South or the Confederacy was a theocratic nation. Just not true. For a nation to be deemed as a theocratic nation or theocracy, it would need to come under some very rigid guidelines. A simple working definition states, “A term expressing the government of a state immediately by God. The constitution of the Israelites, previous to the appointment of kings, was emphatically a theocracy; their chief magistrates or judges being for the most part occasional officers appointed by the express direction of God. ...All polities may in this sense be called theocratic in which the final appeal in matters of moment is made to the will of God, as expressed in oracles, by auguries, or the mouth of the priesthood.” 26

From this concise explanation, it would be obvious that the Confederate States was and could not be seen or viewed as a theocracy. Just like in any other part of the world at any point in history, God’s people, the Church of Jesus Christ has always been a minority of people in world population as a religion or as a culture. Also, God’s Word, the Bible, the Holy Writ, etc. teaches us that His church is to be an influence to the watching world. Matthew 5:13 states it this way: “13You are the salt of the earth; but if the salt has become tasteless, how can it be made salty again? It is no longer good for anything, except to be thrown out and trampled under foot by men. 14You are the light of the world. A city set on a hill cannot be hidden; 15nor does anyone light a lamp and put it under a basket, but on the lampstand, and it gives light to all who are in the house. 16Let your light shine before men in such a way that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father who is in heaven.” 27 That’s how I conclude that many lives in the remnant of God’s people (the Church) impacted the South. The names and lives of those mentioned in this presentation are but a very few.


1  Ann E. Snyder, The Civil War From A Southern Standpoint (Nashville: House of the M. E. Church, South, 1890), 272. 

2  Ann E. Snyder, The Civil War From A Southern Standpoint (Nashville: House of the M. E. Church, South, 1890), 273. 

3 J. William Jones, Christ In the Camp or, Religion In Lee's Army (Richmond: B. F. Johnson & Company, 1887), 40. 

4 William W. Bennett, A Narrative of the Great Revival Which Prevailed in the Southern Armies During the Late Civil War (Philadelphia: Claxton, Remsen & Haffelfinger,1877), 36.

5   J. William Jones, Christ In The Camp Or Religion In Lee’s Army (Richmond: B. F. Johnson &
Company, 1887), 101.

6   The “First Great Awakening” – took place from the early 1730's – and lasted to about 1760 – God’s mercy and grace came to the Thirteen Colonies. The “Second Great Awakening” – God’s mercy and grace came to the United States – and lasted for about fifty years.

7   Heman Humphrey, Revival Sketches and Manual Into Two Parts (New York: American Tract Society, 1859), 13.

8   J. William Jones, Christ In The Camp Or Religion In Lee’s Army (Richmond: B. F. Johnson &
Company, 1887), 5-6.

9   The term is applied to persons, places, things, and times. The root idea is "separation, withdrawal,"
involving dedication to God. Thus God separated Israel from the nations (Lev.20.24-26 ; cf. Je.2.3). Physical purity is holiness of the body, separation from defilement. [William C. Piercy, The Illustrated Bible Dictionary (New York: E. P. Dutton and Company, 1908), 353.]

10   John William Jones, The Davis Memorial Volume  or, Our Dead President, Jefferson Davis and the World’s Tribute to His Memory (Chicago: The Dominion Company, Publisher, 1897), 458-460.

11   Richard Malcolm Johnston & William Hand Browne, Life of Alexander H. Stephens with Appendix (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1884), 675.

12   Henry D. Capers, The Life and Times of Christopher Gustavus Memminger (Richmond: Everett
Waddey Company, Publishers, 1893), 200.

13   Henry D. Capers, The Life and Times of Christopher Gustavus Memminger (Richmond: Everett
Waddey Company, Publishers, 1893), 390.

14   R. A. Brock, Gen. Robert Edward Lee. Soldier, Citizen, and Christian Patriot (Richmond: B. F.
Johnson Company, 1897), 395.

15   Robert Lewis Dabney, Life and Campaigns of Lieut.-Gen. Thomas J. Jackson (Stonewall Jackson) (New York: Blelock Company, 1866), 95-96.

16   Frances Blake Brockenbrough, A New Tract for Soldiers, No. 18: A Mother's Parting Words to Her Soldier Boy (Petersburg, Virginia: General Tract Agency, 1862), 2-3.

17   John A. Broadus, Memoir of James Petigru Boyce, D.D., LL.D: Late President of the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Louiseville, Ky. (New York: A. C. Armstrong & Son, 1893), 266.

18   Twenty Eighth Annual Report of the Board of Church Extension of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1909-1910 (Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 1910), 334.

19   Cornelius Walker, Memoir of Rev. C. W. Andrews, D.D. (New York: Thomas Whittaker, 1877), 221, 223-224.

20   Edward A. Pollard, Lee and His Lieutenants: Comprising the Early Life, Public Services and Campaigns of General Robert E. Lee and His Companions In Arms with a Record of Their Campaigns and Heroic Deeds (New York: E. B. Treat & Company, 1867), 298.

21   Arthur Howard Noll, Doctor Quintard, Chaplain C.S.A. and Second Bishop of Tennessee (The
University Press of Sewanee Tennessee, 1905), 96.

22   John William Jones, Christ in the Camp: Or, Religion in Lee's Army, Supplemented By A Sketch Of The Work In The Other Confederate Armies (Richmond: B. F. Johnson & Company, 1888), 97.

23   Peyton Harrison Hoge, Moses Drury Hoge: Life and Letters (Richmond: Presbyterian Committee of Publication, 1899), 196.

24   Mary Anna Jackson, Memoirs of Julia Jackson Christian: Daughter of Stonewall Jackson (Charlotte N. C.: Stone & Barringer Company, 1910), 20.

25   Mary Anna Jackson, Memoirs of Julia Jackson Christian: Daughter of Stonewall Jackson (Charlotte N. C.: Stone & Barringer Company, 1910), 37-38.

26   W. T. Brande 1842, A Dictionary of Science, Literature, & Art (London: Longman, Brown, Green & Longmans, 1842), 1228.

27   The Holy Bible (Updated New American Standard Bible) (Grand Rapids: Zondervan Publishing House, 1999), 822.


Anonymous said…
You forgot Bishop Polk

Popular posts from this blog

Was Secession Legal for the Southern States?

Any time you might hear anything about American history, specifically from the 1860s, there is much conversation about slavery, taxes and States’ rights! And yes, each of these topics are worthy of discussion but discussing any one of them often leads to overlook a most fundamental question: “Do people or a state(s) have the right to live under abuses by its government or are there tools by which its people can throw off such abuses or even withdraw from an abusive government?” I want to focus of the issue of the right of secession.      Many people heatedly condemned the secessionists when the first Seven States seceded from the United States in 1861, viewing it as unauthorized or as unconstitutional. And yet, no such

disparaging remarks are made about the Secession of the Thirteen Colonies from the British Empire in 1776—or the Secession of Mexico from the Spanish Empire in 1810—
or even the Secession of Texas from Mexico in 1836. So why? I mean the premises and reasons for secession…

Origin of the Confederate Battle Flag

[The facts concerning the origin of the battle flag contained in this article are derived from a speech by General Beauregard before a special meeting of Louisiana Division, Army of Northern Virginia Association, December 6, 1878.—EDITOR.]
This banner, the witness and inspiration of many victories, which was proudly borne on every field from enemy. General Beauregard was momentarily expecting help from the right, and the uncertainty and anxiety of this hour amounted to anguish.
Still the column pressed on. Calling a staff officer, General Beauregard instructed him to go at once to General Johnston, at the Lewis house, and say that the enemy were receiving heavy re-enforcements, that the troops on the plateau were very much scattered, and that he would be compelled to retire to the Lewis house and there reform hoping that the troops ordered up from the right would arrive in time to enable him to establish and hold the new line.
Meanwhile, the unknown troops were pressing on. The day was s…