Brazos River. The new Constitution of 1824 gave Mexico a republican form of government. 2 However, this new constitution failed to define the rights of the states within the republic, including Texas. On April 6, 1830, relations between the Texans and Mexico, reached a new low when Mexico forbid further emigration into Texas, by settlers from the United States. 3
“was one of the most brilliant achievements of the war.” 8 “On the 5th, [Saturday] Col. Milam with a party of 300 volunteers made an assault upon the town of Bexar. ... On Tuesday the brave Milam who was the leader of the expedition received a rifle ball and fell in the cause of Liberty, to rise no more. ... On Wednesday night Col. Ugartechea effected an entrance into the Alamo with a reinforcement of about 300 men.
The Black Flag was raised by Gen. Cos, who fought with a desperation worthy of a better cause, but in vain. The unconquerable Texans with their equally brave auxiliaries from the United States, were not to be dislodged, and the battle raged with tremendous fury, adding however, fresh courage and hopes to the Texans every minute, while terror and despair were fastening upon the enemy. At length dismayed and disheartened with the contest, instead of the Black Flag, the vain emblem of their savage cruelty, they were compelled to raise the signal of submission.” 9
of the Alamo. Here, though reinforced by a considerable body of troops, after several days of severe fighting, General Cos surrendered the fortress and all its contents to General [Edward] Burleson, an officer of militia commanding the volunteer forces of Texas. Thus the strongest post of the Mexicans in Texas fell into the hands of the troops of the new republic.” 10 Three months later, “The first day of March came on, and the Convention assembled in the Town of Washington. Richard Ellis was chosen President of the body. On the second day of its session, a Declaration of Independence was adopted, and by the 17th of March a National Constitution was framed and signed.” 11
on April 21, 1836, the Texans under Sam Houston routed the Mexican forces of Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto. Thus, independence was won in one of the most decisive battles in American History.
causes why revolution was the outcome or why it was their reaction to the Mexican government. The Mexican government and the ruthless dictatorship of Santa Anna is central here. For the Texans, it was about state's right and the Mexican government, well it sought to be a strong centralized government, meaning that the authority and responsibility of governing, rests completely with a small group, at the highest level of government.
informing the President of his conviction that such appointments were the prerogatives of the states, he declined the offer. Hastening to New Orleans, Colonel Davis joined his regiment, and at once inaugurated that course of training and discipline which, in a few months, made of it a model of efficiency.” 12
and near its mouth, where he remained until the 8th day of March, 1846.” 13 It would be “on the 8th of March the army began to move to the Rio Grande, and on the 28th the American flag was planted, fortifications were completed, and guns placed in battery opposite Matamoras.” 14 What followed were victories at Fort Brown, the Battle of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.
that quickly comes to mind are, Captain Robert Edward Lee who became the Commanding General of the Army of Northern Virginia and second, Lieutenant Thomas Jonathan Jackson, who became Lee’s right arm as a Brigadier General on
the field of battle.
Joseph Hardee, Major John Bankhead Magruder, First Lieutenant Earl Van Dorn, Captain George Edward Pickett – to name just a few.
Mason eleven a.m., twenty miles from our camp; reported my arrival to Colonel A. S. Johnston. March 27th. Received orders from Colonel Johnston to repair to Camp Cooper, and assume command of the first and fifth squadrons of the regiment there stationed. April 9th, 1856. Reached Camp Cooper [Throckmorton County, 46 miles NE of Abilene], situated in the Comanche Reserve, on the Clear Fork of the Brazos, thirty-five miles from its mouth, about two miles above the Indian Agency.” 19
Mrs. P., in the Plaza. February 20th. Assumed command of Department of Texas. ... December 22d. Reached Ft. Mason. ... The last entries made in this memorandum-book are as follows: ‘February 15th, 1861. Relinquished command of the regiment, Second Cavalry, and in compliance with Department Special Orders No. 16, took my departure from Fort Mason and commenced my journey to Washington City, to report to the Commander-in-chief. ... 16th. Reached San Antonio. 22d. Arrived at Indianola. ... 25th. Reached New Orleans. March 1st. Arrived in Alexandria; took a carriage and reached Arlington.’” 21
the South against invasion by the Federal troops, and says that he is willing to enter the Texas ranks. In his San Jacinto suit he reviews, at Galveston, the Texas regiment in which his son, Sam Houston, Jr., has enlisted, and is cheered. ... July 26, 1863, Sam Houston dies in his bed at the family home, in Huntsville, Texas, aged 70 years. His last words are: ‘Texas! Texas!’ and ‘Margaret,’ the name of his wife. He died beloved and respected by state and country. To his eldest son, Lieutenant Sam
Houston, Jr., he bequeathed the ‘sword of San Jacinto.’” 24
Texas in the Senate: and during the Confederacy, the following gentlemen represented Texas in the House: John A. Wilcox, C. C. Herbert, Peter W. Gray, B. F. Sexton, M. D. Graham, William B. Wright, A. M. Branch, John R. Baylor, S. H. Morgan, Stephen H. Darden, and A. P. Wiley.” 28
19 Emily V. Mason, Popular life of Gen. Robert Edward Lee (Baltimore: John Murphy & Company, 1872), 53.
20 Emily V. Mason, Popular life of Gen. Robert Edward Lee (Baltimore: John Murphy & Company, 1872), 65.
21 Emily V. Mason, Popular life of Gen. Robert Edward Lee (Baltimore: John Murphy & Company, 1872), 70-71.
22 Henry Bruce, Life of General Houston, 1793-1863 (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1891), 203.
23 Sarah Barnwell Elliott, The Beacon Biographies: Sam Houston (Boston: Small Maynard Company, 1900), 138.
24 Edwin L. Sabin, With Sam Houston In Texas (Philadelphia: L. P. Lippincott Company, 1916), 26.
25 Henry Bruce, Life of General Houston, 1793-1863 (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1891), 205.
26 Henry Bruce, Life of General Houston, 1793-1863 (New York: Dodd, Mead & Company, 1891), 212.
27 D. W. C. Baker, Texas Scrap-Book (New York: A. S. Barnes & Company, 1875), 257.
28 Homer S. Thrall, A Pictorial History of Texas: From the Earliest Visits of European Adventurers, to A. D. 1879 (St. Louis: N. D. Thompson & Company, 1879), 408.
29 Kenneth W. Howell, The Seventh Star of the Confederacy (Denton, Texas: University of North Texas Press, 2009), 25.
30 Elizabeth Cruce Alvarez, Robert Plocheck, Texas Almanac 2012–2013 (Texas A&M University Press, 2011), 16.
31 Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, Volumes 47-48 (1959), 19.