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Women Serving the Confederate States of America by Dr. Richard Lee Montgomery

Dr. Richard Lee Montgomery

I’ll start with this illustration, of a small group of women, that exemplifies  what so many Southern women felt: “There is a story told of General Forrest which shows his opinion of the pluck and devotion of the Southern women. He was drawing up his men in line of battle one day, and it was evident that a sharp encounter was about to take place. Some ladies ran from a house which happened to stand just in front of his line, and asked him anxiously, ‘What shall we do, General, what shall we do?’ Strong in his faith that they only wished to help in some way, he replied, ‘I really don't see that you can do much, except to stand on stumps, wave your bonnets and shout, ‘Hurrah, boys.’” 1

Women across the South took on new roles to support their families and to support the Confederacy. In the beginning of the war, Southern women wanted their men to leave in droves and as quickly as possible. Women were the Confederate Army’s most persuasive and effective recruitment officers, shaming anyone who shirked his duty to fight. Even a young English immigrant in
Arkansas, Henry Morton Stanley, enlisted after being approached at a recruitment meeting. In his book “The Autobiography of Sir Henry M. Stanley,” he states, “No suggestion of compromise was possible in their presence. If every man did not hasten to the battle, they vowed they would themselves rush out and meet the Yankee
vandals. In a land where women are worshipped by the men, such language made them war-mad.” 2

Mary Boykin Chesnut strongly stated, “They are wasting their time
dancing attendance on me. I can not help them. Let them shoulder their musket and go to the wars like men.” 3 Even John Beauchamp Jones, who served as a Confederate War Clerk in Richmond said, “The ladies are postponing all engagements until their lovers have fought the Yankees. Their influence is great.” 4
Another is John Levi Underwood, who served as Chaplain of the Thirtieth Alabama Regiment,  gives a thesis statement:“History is replete with bright and beautiful examples of woman's devotion to home and birthland; of her fortitude, trials, and sufferings in her country's cause, and the women of the Confederacy added many luminous pages to what had already been most graphically written. 

Yes, these Spartan wives and mothers, with husbands or sons, or both, at the front, directed the farming operations, supporting their families and supplying the armies; they sewed, knitted, weaved, and spun; then in the hospitals they were ministering angels, turning the heated pillow, smoothing the wrinkled cot, cooling the parched lips, stroking the burning brow, staunching the flowing blood, binding up the gaping wounds, trimming the midnight taper, and sitting in the stillness, only broken by the groans of the sick and wounded, pointing the departing spirit the way to God; closing the sightless eyes and then following the bier to Hollywood or some humble spot, and then dropping the purest tear.” 5

Women As Confederate Nurses
One simple example that illustrates the supportive Southern woman was that of Indiana Virginia Kilby Henry: “When the War between the States began, she, having bloomed into womanhood, was one of that class of lovely Southern women whose enthusiasm and patriotism did much to support the courage of the men of our own State who, almost without exception, joined the Southern army and served through a long and bloody war. 

Becoming herself the wife of one of those gallant soldiers during the war [Captain Edward Moore Henry], she shared with him some of the discomforts, and bore her share of the anxiety which such a union necessarily caused.” 6

Women's roles changed dramatically. With the absence of men in the work place women became heads of households. They staffed the Confederate government as clerks. They became schoolteachers for the first time. At the beginning of the war, women were denied permission to work in military hospitals as they were exposed to “sights that no lady should see.” But when casualties rose to the point that wounded men would die in the streets from lack of attention, female nurses became reality. By late 1862 the Confederate Congress enacted a law permitting civilians in military hospitals, giving preference to women.

One such lady was  Sally Louisa Tompkins, born November 9,
1833 in Poplar Grove, Mathews County, Virginia. Her father died just before the war and her mother moved the family to Richmond. Sally felt that her duty was to nurse the sick and wounded after the Battle at First Manassas. She “enjoys the distinction of being the only woman who was an ‘officer (Captain) in the Confederate States army.’ During the four fiery years of Southern trial this pure, saintly, and heroic young patriot displayed throughout as undaunted heroism, as devoted zeal, as steadfast loyalty in behalf of the storm-cradled nation that sleeps as the world’s civilization can boast. In recognition of her inestimable service rendered the sick and wounded of the South, for whose benefit she exhausted her once munificent patrimony, in the year 1863 she was regularly commissioned' a captain of cavalry in the Confederate army. Verily there were many who called her blessed.” 7

From her obituary we learn that... “When, during the course of the War Between the States, an order was issued closing private hospitals, Miss Tompkins was commissioned a captain of cavalry at the request of President Jefferson Davis, and she opened a hospital at the northwest corner of third and Main Streets, in the home of John Robertson. She took her mother's old cook and opened the hospital ten days after the first battle of Manassas.” 8

Miss Tompkins nursed over 1,300 sick and wounded soldiers from the date of the first Battle of Manassas to the thirteenth of June 13, 1865, when the hospital finally closed its doors. We are told that, “Miss Tompkins was once wealthy, as old time fortunes were reckoned. When she died, over fifty years after Appomattox, she
was the guest of the Home for Confederate Women at Richmond. From a contemporary newspaper account of her death and the semi-military honors accorded her, the following is quoted: ‘She was more than eighty years of age, and she was shrunken and bent and piteously feeble; she died, too, in a Home for Needy Confederate Women. But to those who knew her history, she passed with fluttering banner, still lifted high, all armored and panoplied in bravery and beauty. So might a Joan of Arc have passed.’” 9

Also, she was called “the Angel of the Confederacy.” John Levi
Underwood says of Miss Tompkins: “While yet a very young woman Miss Tompkins used her ample means to establish in Richmond a private hospital for Confederate soldiers. She not only provided for its support at her own expense, but devoted her time to the work of nursing the patients.” 10

Another lady of the South is Ella King Newsom. This is what she tells us: “I was born in the little town of Brandon, Rankin Co., Miss. The village looked like a big ant hill, and the population though small was just about as thriving and active as the busy ant. My father was a Baptist minister and pastor of the only church of this peculiar people in the town. He was quite well off in this world's goods and my mother coming of an aristocratic family chose to hold herself rather aloof from the church folk.” 11

The family moved to Arkansas in Ella’s early life, where she was brought up in a more pioneer way of life and she was “skillfully trained in the most daring and accomplished feats of horsemanship, and became thoroughly qualified for the trying experiences which subsequently characterized her arduous and unselfish life in the hospital service of the Confederacy.” 12

In time, as a young adult, she met and married Frank Newsom, a physician. Sorrow would come however, as her husband died two years later leaving her a comfortable life but also with a great void in her life. “Her only relief was consecration to duty and labor in the busy scenes of the world.”  13 When the war came to the South, it did not come from a nation that far away on an another continent,  but from North America – the United States, seeking to coerce by force the Confederate South back under their auspices. “Mrs. Ella K. Trader, better known as Mrs. Newsom from heroic and unselfish devotion to the cause of the sick and suffering soldiers of the Confederate army during the late war, richly deserves to be called ‘The Florence Nightingale’ of the South.” 14

In the 1919, “Confederate Veteran Magazine, Volume 27, No. 2,” we read a tribute given to  the life of Ella King Newsom by saying: “It is impossible to chronicle the full measure of her devotion and sacrifice in behalf of the Confederate soldiers. General Hardee and other prominent Confederate officers wrote of the value of her services. Gen. J. B. [Joseph Benjamin] Palmer wrote from Murfreesboro, Tenn.: ‘I was in
command of a regiment at Bowling Green, Ky., and witnessed her appearance there as the friend of the Confederate soldiers, and saw her readiness to devote her handsome estate, together with all the energies of her splendid mind and heart and the labor of her own hands, to do all that was possible to aid her struggling land and to provide for the sick, disabled, and suffering of all grades in the Southern army.
Later during the war she became Chief Matron of the Hospital Department in that part of the army commanded by Generals Bragg, Johnston, and others, and so remained until the close of our memorable and heroic struggle. To this hospital service she gave order and system, value and efficiency much above and beyond any similar effort in that direction ever before made anywhere or by any one. This may, indeed, be said with emphasis when the limited means at her command and the general embarrassments of the well-remembered situation are all properly considered.’” 15 

But there were others: Phoebe Yates Pember, appointed the chief
Matron of the 2nd Division of Richmond's Chimborazo Hospital;  Fannie Beers, a nurse in hospitals in Alabama and Georgia; Susan Leigh Blackford, who nursed the wounded at Lynchburg, Virginia; Letitia Tyler Semple, the fourth daughter of past President John Tyler, was instrumental in the establishment and support of the first
hospitals in Williamsburg, Virginia; Ella Palmer who worked in makeshift hospitals in Chattanooga, Tennessee and; Juliet Ann Opie Hopkins who established hospitals in Richmond, Virginia, in 1861 and established  the Matron Alabama Hospitals. And the list goes on.

Women As Confederate Soldiers

In Chaplain Underwood’s Book entitled, “The Women of the Confederacy,” he reports this: “In the southern part of Virginia the women had become almost shoeless and sent a petition to General Jackson to grant the detail of a shoemaker to make shoes for them. Here is his reply, in a letter of November 14, 1862: ‘Be assured that I feel a deep and abiding interest in our female soldiers. They are patriots in the truest sense of the word, and I more and more admire them.’” 16

It has been estimated that 250 women served in the Confederate Army, disguised as men. In the 1915, “Confederate Veterans, Volume 23 Magazine,” we are given a pretty good portrait. It says, “Many other stories of heroism on the part of Southern women were received in this contest with a wide application of the subject. One of them recounted the daring exploits of Mrs. Amy Clark, who, disguised as a soldier, fought by the side of her soldier husband during the early part of the war; and when he lost his life
at Shiloh, site buried him with her own hands and then continued her military service until she was wounded. Others were of such stirring deeds as that of Miss Alice Thompson, who, during the battle of Thompson Station, Tenn., when the 3d Arkansas Regiment was thrown into confusion by the loss of its colonel and color bearer, rushed from her shelter and seized the fallen standard, thus inspiring the troops to victory.” 17

We need to understand that in that split moment, this seventeen-year old Alice Thompson, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Elijah Thompson, dashed out of the cellar when she saw the color-bearer of the 3rd Arkansas Regiment fall. She retrieved his colors and inspired an entire the regiment to carry the field. Can you imagine? in that one moment, just one moment, Alice Thompson transitions into a Confederate soldier, inspiring a regiment of Confederate soldiers to win the battle.

Then there is the young lady by the name of Charlotte Hope, a.k.a. Charlie Hopper of Fairfax, Virginia who joined the First Virginia Cavalry to avenge the death of her fiance Lieutenant Billy Wilds. Here is the narrative from George Cary Eggleston’s book “Southern Soldier Stories,” published in 1915.: “AFTER the
battle of Bull Run, or Manassas, as we called it, the region north of Fairfax Court House was a No-man’s land. ... About half the people inhabiting it were loyal to one side; about half to the other. So in asking information we had to be circumspect. But we had assurance that the Hopes were loyal to our side. So when Lieutenant Billy Wilds was sent out with a party of us, on scouting duty, he naturally went to the Hope mansion for information.

He got it in abundance. Charlotte Hope, the daughter of the house, came out to give it to us, and she was very enthusiastic. She was a brunette, full of life, full of health, and full of enthusiasm for the cause. Besides, she knew how to sit gracefully on a rail fence. She had a rich contralto voice that had narrowly escaped being a bass. She was beautiful to her finger tips. She ‘had a way with her’ that was fascinating beyond belief.

As she sat there on the rail fence, explaining the geography of the region round about, we all fell in love with her as troopers should, so far at least as to be ready to do any conceivable deed of derring-do in her behalf. But Lieutenant Wilds fell in love with her in fuller fashion, as was afterwards made manifest.

It was not long afterwards that we learned that our gallant young lieutenant was engaged to be married to Charlotte Hope. The marriage was to take place as soon as the war was over. At that time we regarded this as a postponement of only a few months at most. We expected to win then and we expected to win quickly.

... One day about a month later, while we were waiting in the yard for Lieutenant Wilds to secure the necessary geographical information indoors, a Federal force attacked us. The lieutenant came out promptly, swung himself into the saddle, and ordered a charge. We fought there under the cherry trees for full fifteen minutes. At the end of the contest the enemy was driven away, and we pursued—but three of our saddles were empty. One of them was that of Lieutenant Wilds.

It was Charlotte's wish that Lieutenant Wilds should be buried in the family grave-yard of the Hopes. It was also her wish that his company should attend the funeral.

... It was only two or three days later when Charlie Hopper rode into the camp on a magnificent chestnut-sorrel mare. We did not know him. He said he didn't want to enlist. He merely wanted to join the company. He explained that if he enlisted he would be a man under pay. And he didn't want pay, he said, for the work he wanted to do. Only give him rations and a chance and he would be satisfied.

His idea of a chance soon developed itself. He wanted to be as continually as possible in the presence of the enemy, anywhere, anyhow. He wanted to shoot all the ‘Yankees’ he could. For that purpose he had brought with him the first Whitworth rifle I ever saw, with its long range, its telescopic sights, and its terrible accuracy of fire. He seemed about sixteen years old. He didn't tell us anything about himself, not even where he came from. But he had a long talk, and a confidential one, with Charlie Irving. After that Charlie paid him special attention. He detailed him upon every scouting expedition that had ‘business’ in it. Sometimes when scouting expeditions were slack, the young fellow would go off by himself and remain for a day or two in close proximity to the enemy's lines. Each day he wore upon his breast a little tag with a number on it.” 18

That number was twenty-one. But the narrative continues: “It was only a few days later when we were at Falls Church. Young Hopper's score read twenty, when he asked permission to ride out and personally encounter an officer who had separated himself from his, command. The permission was given. Hopper leaped upon his mare, drew his sword, and galloped toward the officer. They met in mid field. The officer fired just as the boy clove him to the saddle. Hopper fell forward on his horse and rode back to the lines. As he rolled off the saddle, he said: ‘I'm done for, boys, but I've made it twenty-one without counting a single disputed bird.’ Then, feebly, he broke into song, singing, — ‘I've kept the vow I swore.’” 19 The ending of this narrative states: “Before we buried him in the Hope cemetery the next day, the captain told me that Charlie Hopper was none other than Charlotte Hope.” 

Women As Confederate Spy’s

Although the exact number is unknown, it is speculated that several hundred women served as spies and intelligence gathers on the enemy’s plans, troop size, enemy fortifications and supplies on scraps of paper or fabric and sewed them into their blouses and petticoats or rolled them into their hair. Women were perfect for the role of a spy because they were easily trusted and viewed as non-threatening by soldiers who captivated by their beauty would often let their guard down. Men didn’t expect women getting involved in such a dangerous job, so women spies often went undetected during the early phase of the war.

In his book, “Belle Boyd: Confederate Spy,” Louis A. Sigaud,
who served as a U.S. Army intelligence officer (Lieutenant Colonel) during Word War I 20 tells us that in the Valley of the Shenandoah in 1861, “At the call to arms, from every farm, from every village, from every town, men swarmed in neighborly groups eager to uphold the cause of the South and to fight for the Valley. ... Such was the stature of the men of the Valley. Its daughters came from a no less heroic mold. Scorning the conventional passive womanly role, they were eager to serve the Confederacy in every possible way with the same high courage as their men. They were ready to scout and spy for the Southern forces, run the Union land blockade, nurse the wounded and the sick, defy the occupying troops of the North, and, above all, by their heartening example and infectious devotion, to keep alight the flaming spirit that animated the Confederate forces to the very end.” 21

Isabella Maria Boyd is best known as Belle Boyd, as well as the “Cleopatra of the Secession” and served as a Confederate spy. She was born in Martinsburg, Virginia on May 9, 1844. Her father and mother Benjamin Reed and Mary Rebecca Boyd, were able to make available  the proper schooling in Belle’s formative years and would later attend the Mount Washington
Female College at Baltimore, Maryland. Her father, who served as a Major 22 in the Confederate Army, “was the head of a wealthy and widely connected family residing at Martinsburg, a town situated not far from Harper’s Ferry. She was just seventeen years of age when the war broke out and had only recently left the schoolroom. Beautiful, intelligent, and high-spirited, and passionately loyal to the Confederate cause, she was as cool in courage and as firm in purpose as the bravest soldier on the battlefield.” 23

Belle’s home of Martinsburg was captured by the Union forces in July of 1861. During this time  Belle sought to learn as much military information as possible, from the Union officers and would in time go as a messenger on foot to the Confederate authorities through the Union picket lines. Belle states as an eighteen year old, “My escape was most providential; for, although I was not hit, the rifle-balls flew thick and fast about me, and more than one struck the ground so near my feet as to throw the dust in my eyes.” 24 She goes on to say, “Besides all this, I was exposed to a cross fire from
the Federal and Confederate artillery, whose shot and shell flew whistling and hissing over my head.” 25 ... “As I neared our line I waved my bonnet to our soldiers, to intimate that they should press forward, upon which one regiment the 1st Maryland  ‘rebel’ Infantry, and Hay’s Louisiana Brigade, gave me a loud cheer, and, without waiting for further orders, dashed upon the town at a rapid pace.

They did not then know who I was, and they were naturally surprised to see a woman on the battle-field, and on a spot, too, where the fire was so hot. Their shouts of approbation and triumph rang in my ears for many a clay afterwards, and I still hear them not unfrequently in my dreams.” 26
“... For some seconds I could say no more; but, as soon as I had sufficiently recovered myself, I produced the ‘little note,’ and told him all, urging him to hurry on the cavalry, with orders to them to seize the bridges before the retreating Federals should have time to destroy them. 

He instantly galloped off to report to General Jackson,
who immediately rode forward, and asked me if I would have an escort and a horse wherewith to return to the village. I thanked him, and said, ‘No; I would go as I came;’ and then, acting upon the information I had been spared to convey, the Confederates gained a most complete victory.” 27

Later General Jackson send a note of thanks to Belle Boyd: “May 23rd, 1862 – Miss Belle Boyd, ‘I thank you, for myself and for the army, for the immense service that you have rendered your country to-day. Hastily, I am your Friend, T. J. Jackson,’ C.S.A.” 28

Two months later Belle was arrested for her help to the Confederacy. She was sent to Old Capitol Prison in Washington, D.C. where she spent a month behind bars. Belle writes, “On my arrival at the Old Capitol I was welcomed by a one-armed lieutenant, who had ‘seen servin,’ but when he did not say, and whom I ascertained to belong to that body of men known as the ‘invalid corps.’ I was
ordered to sit down, and, after a running fire of questions, I was sent off to the Carroll Prison, under the guard of two soldiers. I was not long in reaching it, for the political bastile is situated not far from its prototype, the Old Capitol. I was received by the under-superintendent, who, having registered my name, age, occupation height, business, ancestry, and was good enough to relieve me of some money—not all, for I had been deprived of most by ‘the gallant knights of the greenwood,’ through whose merciless fingers I did not pass unscathed, and who certainly have a taking way about them. A diminutive penknife which was also ‘captured,’ although I begged to retain it as a favour, was refused on the plea that I might injure myself.” 29

The following year Belle had a longer prison stay for five months. After this incarceration she refused to stop her work. Belle sets sail for England in May of 1864, on the blockade runner Greyhound, in order to transport Confederate papers there. But her ship was stopped by a Union naval ship Connecticut – and  she was again
arrested. Belle tells us, “The officers and crew of the Greyhound, together with my fellow-passengers Mr. Pollard and Mr. Newell, were taken on board the Connecticut. The captain, steward, cook, and cabin-boy, myself and my maid, remained prisoners on board the prize.” 30 

It is here that Belle came in contact with Samuel Wilde Hardinge (Harding)  and in time fell in love with him and like wise he fell in love with her. What makes this a historical awkwardness is that Samuel was a Union officer and Belle had been a Confederate spy. Belle states that she thought she might be able to woo Samuel to the Confederate side. On this issue she states, “I firmly believe that God intended us to meet and love; and, to make the story short, I told him that ‘I would be his wife.’ Although our politics differed, ‘women,’ thought I, ‘can sometimes work wonders; and may not he, who is of Northern birth, come by degrees to love, for my sake, the ill-used South?’” 31 Belle Boyd accepted his proposal with several stipulations, one of which required him to join the Confederate Army. Rather than execution as a prisoner, Belle Boyd was banished to Canada for “Boston has a special interest in Belle Boyd, for it was from this
city she was taken by Marshall Keyes to Canada under sentence from this country.” 32 Samuel Hardinge was discharged from the U. S. Navy under the charges of neglect. Eventually, Samuel and Belle would be reunited in London in late August of 1864 and were married at the St. James's Church, Piccadilly 33 on August 25, 1864 and in time they would have a daughter together. 

After Samuel died in 1866, Belle would remarry two more times, having a total of four children. Belle died June 11, 1900 in Kilbourn, now Wisconsin Dells, Wisconsin.

Other women served as spy's. Eppa Hunton gives us this narrative: “There is a romance connected with the Battle of Manassas. When General Beauregard had his army at Fairfax Courthouse there were there four noted rebel girls. They were very beautiful, attractive and violent in their declarations of loyalty to the Confederacy. When Beauregard retired and was succeeded by the Federal army these four girls became, strange to tell, as great belles with the Yankee officers as they had been with the Confederate officers. They were Antonia Ford; Florence Brent; Dollie Waters and Miss Zimmerman of Alexandria. Before the war ended all four had married Yankee officers. They had not only forgotten to hate, but learned to love a ‘Yankee.’” 34 Of these four,  Antonia Ford is well known as the
one who informed General J.E.B. Stuart of Union activity near her Fairfax, Virginia home. Rose O'Neal Greenhow was a popular society hostess in Washington, D.C. and used her contacts to gain information to pass to the Confederacy and was imprisoned for a time for her espionage. Nancy Hart gathered information on Federal movements and led rebels to their positions. After she was captured she tricked a man into showing her his gun and then she killed him in order to escape. Laura Ratcliffe helped Colonel Mosby of Mosby's Rangers escape capture and passed information
and funds by hiding them. And the list goes on: Belle Edmondson, Eugenia Levy Phillips, Charlotte “Lottie” Moon, Virginia “Ginnie” Moon and Emeline Jamison Pigott

Bottom line – had the women not served in the way and manner that they did, it would have been catastrophic to the Confederate States of America.


1  J. L. Underwood, The Women Of The Confederacy (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1906), 24.

2  Dorothy Stanley, The Autobiography of Sir Henry M. Stanley (London: Sampson, Low, Marston & Company, 1909), 165.

3  Mary Boykin Chesnut, A Diary From Dixie (New York: D. Appleton & Company, 1905), 144.

4  J. B. Jones, A Rebel War Clerk's Diary at the Confederate States Capital, Volume 1 (Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott & Company, 1866), 33.

5  J. L. Underwood, The Women Of The Confederacy (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1906), 31.

6  S. A. Cunningham, Confederate Veteran, Volume 14, No. 7 (Nashville: July, 1906), 323.

7 Ibid., 72.

8  Richmond Times-Dispatch (Richmond: Wednesday, July 26, 1916), 3.

9  Matthew Page Andrews, Reminiscences of the Women of Missouri During the Sixties (Baltimore: The Norman, Remington Company, 1920), 129-130.

10  J. L. Underwood, The Women Of The Confederacy (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1906), 124.

11  J. Fraise Richards, The Florence Nightingale of the Southern Army, Experiences of Mrs. Ella K. Newsom, Confederate Nurse in the Great War of 1861-65 (New York: Broadway Publishing Company, 1914), 13.

12  J. Fraise Richards, The Florence Nightingale of the Southern Army, Experiences of Mrs. Ella K. Newsom, Confederate Nurse in the Great War of 1861-65 (New York: Broadway Publishing Company, 1914), 14.

13 Ibid., 14

14  Ibid., 16-17

15  S. A. Cunningham, Confederate Veteran, Volume 27, No. 2 (Nashville: February, 1919), 46.

16  J. L. Underwood, The Women Of The Confederacy (New York: The Neale Publishing Company, 1906), 23.

17  S. A. Cunningham, Confederate Veteran, Volume 23 (Nashville, 1915), 445.

18  George Cary Eggleston, Southern Soldier Stories (New York: The MacMillan Company, 1915), 97-101.

19 Ibid., 102

20  Louis A. Sigaud, Belle Boyd: Confederate Spy (Richmond: The Dietz Press, 1944), cover.

21 Ibid., 21

22  Charles Carleton Coffin, Stories of Our Soldiers: War Reminiscences, Volume 2 (Boston: The Journal Newspaper Company, 1893), 44.

23  Philip Alexander Bruce, Brave Deeds of Confederate Soldiers (Philadelphia: George W. Jacobs & Company, 1916), 34.

24  Belle Boyd, Belle Boyd: In Camp and Prison, Volume 1 (London: Saunders, Otley & Company, 1865), 131.

25 Ibid., 132

26 Ibid., 133-134

27 Ibid., 135-136

28 Ibid., 142

29  Belle Boyd, Belle Boyd: In Camp and Prison, Volume 2 (London: Saunders, Otley & Company, 1865), 152-153.

30 Ibid., 59-60

31 Ibid., 82

32  Charles Carleton Coffin, Stories of Our Soldiers: War Reminiscences, Volume 2 (Boston: The Journal Newspaper Company, 1893), 40.

33  Belle Boyd, Belle Boyd: In Camp and Prison, Volume 2 (London: Saunders, Otley & Company, 1865), 112.

34  Eppa Hunton, Autobiography of Eppa Hunton (Richmond: The William Byrd Press, 1930), 43.


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