Francis Stebbins Bartow introduced Bill 102 that would give the president the right to appoint chaplains to as many regiments, brigades, and or posts as he deemed expedient. After becoming law the chaplain’s salary was set at $85 per month. However, there was no provision for rations, forage, uniforms, rank, or duties in this legislation. On May 16 thirteen days later, the salary was reduced to $50 per month 3 for the reason that the chaplain only worked one day a week. It was not until nearly a year later April 19, 1862 that the salary of the chaplain was raised to $80. 4 Then on August 31, 1862, a revision to the law was passed that allowed for rations like that of a private. 5 On January 22, 1864, the Confederate Congress granted chaplains forage 6 for their horses if he had one.
jackets, a "C" inside a ½ olive branch wreath. J. William Jones who served as Chaplain – of the Thirteenth Virginia Infantry writes, “The badge adopted by the Chaplains' Association of the Army of Tennessee was the Maltese cross, worn on the Collar or lappel of their coats.” 7 But aside from these two examples there is no record of any other chaplains in the South wearing an insignia to distinguish them as chaplains.
ministers served as officers or enlisted soldiers. One name that comes to mind is Major David C. Kelly, who ministered to the men of General Nathan Bedford Forrest’s command, a former Methodist missionary in China, was better known as “the fighting preacher.” 9
identified as “‘the gallant soldier preacher,’ for when in camp, he preached to his men and made every effort to influence them toward a religious life, yet in action on the battlefield he was stern, determined, and unfaltering.” 11 After the war General William J. Hardee said of Lowrey, "the parson soldier, who preached to his men in camp and fought with them in the field with equal earnestness and effect."
assistants to the field surgeons, letter writers, ambulance drivers, counselors, attorneys, literacy teachers and bearers of death notices. It was said of Chaplain George Buck Overton of the 2nd Kentucky Infantry, “No chaplain in the army was more successful than he, though he did his whole duty as a soldier. He was always at work, just as earnestly as he fought.” 12 He served different roles, kneeling and praying with wounded soldiers, even while under heavy enemy fire.
recognized black chaplain to white troops. 13 His name was known as "Uncle Lewis" but his given name was Louis Napoleon Nelson and was elected by the Seventh Tennessee Cavalry Regiment at the Battle of Shiloh on April of 1862 and served until the war ended. It was reported in the Religious Herald in Richmond, “A correspondent of the soldier’s friend mentions a Tennessee regiment which has no chaplain; but an old negro, ‘Uncle Lewis,’ ‘preaches two or three times a week at night. He is heard with respectful attention, and for earnestness, zeal and sincerity, can be surpassed by none. Two or three revivals have followed his preaching in the regiment. What will the wise Christian patriots out of the army, who denounce those who wish to see competent negroes allowed to preach, as tainted with anti-slaveryism, say with regard to the true Southern feeling of that regiment, which has fought unflinchingly from Shiloh to Murfreesboro?’” 14
For them patriotism and liberty went hand and hand. During the war, a committee was assembled and out of that committee Beverly Tucker Lacy, Chaplain to Stonewall Jackson gave an address to the Churches of the Confederacy on the needs of the army. Within that speech, Dr. Lacy connects patriotism with the gospel ministry to the Confederate soldier. He says, “Ministerial brethren, ought this thing so to be? Church of the living God, awake from your lethargy and arouse to your duty! We are well aware of the pure and lofty patriotism of the Southern ministry. We know that your hearts are as truly and deeply enlisted in the cause of the country as ours; and we are also aware of the fact that a large number of chaplains are stationed at posts and laboring faithfully in hospitals, and many ministers of the Gospel are serving as officers and as privates in the army. But how great is the destitution in the field? And how many of our soldiers are perishing without the bread of life?” This was indeed a patriotic duty. 16
Lieutenant and then as Chaplain for the Forty Fourth Virginia Infantry, he says, “My connection with the army was honorable but not at all brilliant. I look back to that period with pleasure, as a scene of active service in defence of my native State against a wicked aggression: service in which I discharged every duty as it arose; did what I could for the welfare, temporal and spiritual, of the men; endured hardships cheerfully, encountered dangers without flinching and met the responsibilities I had assumed promptly and with constancy. I served as lieutenant for three or four months, and then, on the recommendation of our colonel and the regimental officers, I was appointed chaplain.” 17
writes this of General Richard Stoddard Ewell, “At a council of war, one night, Jackson had listened very attentively to the views of his subordinates, and asked until the next morning to present his own. As they came away, A. P. Hill laughingly said to Ewell, ‘Well! I suppose Jackson wants time to pray over it.’ Having occasion to return to his quarters again a short time after, Ewell found Jackson on his knees and heard his ejaculatory prayers for God's guidance in the perplexing movements then before him. The sturdy veteran Ewell was so deeply impressed by this incident and by Jackson's general religious character, that he said: ‘If that is religion, I must have it;’ and in making a profession of faith not long afterwards he attributed his conviction to the influence of Jackson's piety.” 20
served as the Superintendent of Colportage, “In his report for 1863, in the midst of the war, he says: ‘Modern history presents no example of armies so nearly converted into churches as the armies of Southern defence. On the crest of this flood of war, which threatens to engulf our freedom, rides a pure Christianity; the Gospel of the grace of God shines through the smoke of battle with the light that leads to heaven ; and the camp becomes a school of Christ. From the very first day of the unhappy contest to the present time, religious influences have been spreading among the soldiers, until now, in camp and hospital, throughout every portion of the army, revivals display their precious, saving power. In one of these revivals over three hundred are known as having professed conversion, while, doubtless, there are hundreds of others equally blessed, whose names, unrecorded here, find a place in the ‘Lamb's book of life.’” 23